πŸ”₯ Blackjack Game Class β€” Building Skills in Object-Oriented Design documentation

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Walking through a case study seems to be a standard exercise in many object-​oriented books that deal with OO design. My first recollection of such an exercise​.


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Video created by Rice University for the course "An Introduction to Interactive Programming in Python (Part 2)". Learn the basics of object-oriented programming.


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SDE Skills - CtCI - In Class Sessions - Mar 17 - OO Design for a Deck of Cards and a Blackjack game

You can bet money, chips, your watch, your horse, or even the title to your house. My first recollection of such an exercise was a graduate course that I took in which we followed an example in the book Designing Object-Oriented Software by Wrifs-Brock, Wilkerson, and Weiner. The next step is to study the requirements summary statement and start identifying the classes. There might well be some classes that you feel should be in the list but are not. A card must know what its face value is and be able to report this value. The dealer plays the game along with the players. In the blackjack example we are working on, there will be relatively few classes, because this is intended as an example. Because this is a small system, a requirements summary statement might make more sense. You might even find that you left an important object out, or that you need to split one object into two objects. Of course, when working with a team, the final design will have to be a consensus, iterating and evolving to a common solution. If the player wins with a blackjack, the player wins times the bet made assuming that the dealer does not also have blackjack. Not all the classes that you identify from the list of nouns, or elsewhere, will make it through to the final cut. In short, a bet is not a logical attribute of a player. During the game, a player can request that a card be dealt to his hand. Remember that one of the goals of a design is to be extensible. Now let's explore each of the possible classes:. However, there are card games that need to keep track of the suit. From a player's perspective, the goal of the game is to draw cards from the deck until the sum of the face value of all the cards equals 21 or as close to 21 as possible, without exceeding If the sum of the face value of all the cards exceeds 21, the player loses. The player must be able to display the hand, calculate the face value of the hand, and determine the number of cards in the hand. This deck must have the functionality to deal the next card, as well as report how many cards remain in the deck. On the other hand, some classes might make the final cut that were not in your original list. We will assume that the statement of work has already been completed. In any event, we now have a starting point, and we can begin the process of fine-tuning the list of classes. All cards must be members of a deck of cards. The modeling technique was called CRC modeling, which will be described later in this section. So it would be possible for a player to keep track of the cards without having to have a hand object. According to the statement of work, the basic goal is to design a software system that will simulate the game of blackjack see Figure 6. After some intense analysis, we have determined the requirements of the system. There must be a way to keep track of the classes as well as their interactions. The dealer must deal the cards, present a player with additional cards, show all or part of a hand, calculate the value of all or part of a hand, calculate the number of cards in a hand, determine the winner, and start a new hand. Although this might be partially true, using CRC cards is a good technique because many of the people involved with the design will not be developers. We have already stated that if you put 10 people in different rooms, they will come up with 10 different designs, and they might all be equally good. It should be an attribute of a card, so we will strike it as a class. Although it is true that nouns generally indicate classes, nouns are not the only places where classes are found. Discovering classes is not a trivial process. Thus, using the index cards to discover classes is a technique that everyone can understand. Blackjack an ace and a face card or a 10 beats other combinations of If the player and the dealer have identical scores and at least 17, it is considered a draw and the player retains the bet. They might not even have much computer experience. However, because it is theoretically possible for a player to have multiple hands, and because we might want to use the concept of a hand in other card games, we will keep this class. When the dealer asks the player whether to deal another card or to start a new game, the player must respond. This is an iterative process, and although we have 19 potential classes, our final class list might be a lot shorter. One of the more endearing qualities of CRC cards is that they are non-electronic although I'm sure that there are computer applications around that simulate CRC cards. Again, remember that this is just the initial pass. Before we actually start this process, let's define how we are going to model and track the classes that we ultimately identify. However, we want the class to represent a single player and not a group of players, so we strike players and keep player. Can you find any other possible classes that were missed? Figure 6. Walking through a case study seems to be a standard exercise in many object-oriented books that deal with OO design. CRC cards are, quite literally, a collection of standard index cards. One of the most popular methods for identifying and categorizing classes is to use class-responsibility-collaboration cards CRC. It might also be possible to avoid a dealer class altogether, thus having the dealer simply be an instance of the player class. For the blackjack game, we do not need to keep track of the suit. Aces count as 1 or Face cards Jack, Queen, King each count as The rest of the cards represent their face values. The rules of the game state that if the sum of the face value of the player's cards is closer to 21 than the sum of the face value of the dealer's cards, the player wins an amount equal to the bet that was made. The suit of the card is of no importance but it might be for another game in the future. Each CRC card represents a single class's data attributes, responsibilities, and collaborations. If the sum of the face value of the first two cards equals 21, the player is said to have blackjack. Ultimately, this will culminate in the discovery of the classes, along with their responsibilities and collaborations. As already mentioned, you could also have presented the requirements in bullet form, as we did for the DataBaseReader class in Chapter 2, "How to Think in Terms of Objects. In the game of blackjack, one or more individuals play against the dealer or house. Each card has its own face value suit does not factor into the face value. However, in most large systems, a database of the requirements in bulleted list format would be more appropriate. Also, abstracting out the bet is a good idea because we might want to bet various things. Even though there might be many valid arguments not to make the bet a class, in this case we will. Start feeling comfortable with the iterative process throughout the design. We absolutely need cards in the game, but we want the class to represent a single card, so we strike cards and keep card. However, the suit is not a good candidate for a class. In fact, let's say that a customer has come to you with a proposal that includes a very well-written statement of work and a rule book about how to play blackjack. In most cases, although the designs might be different, ideally there will be significant overlap.

The rest of this chapter is dedicated to a case study pertaining to the design process covered in the previous sections. The intended purpose of this software application is to implement a game of blackjack.

If the sum of the face value of the player's cards exceeds 21, the bet is lost. We want to take the perspective of the user. Thus, to make blackjack object oriented design class reusable, we should track it.

Technically you could play blackjack without a bet; however, the requirements statement clearly includes a bet in the description. Thus, we will treat this in the same way we treated the noun game.

In this case, we will use a requirements summary statement; however, we could have presented the requirements as blackjack object oriented design. Because we want by hilton detroit downtown have some fun, instead of blackjack object oriented design a payroll system or an ATM system, let's create a program that simulates a game of blackjack.

The bet could be considered an attribute of the player in this case, but there are many other games where a player does not need to have a bet.

And as always, make sure that you realize that there are always many ways to skin a cat. The dealer could be a specific type of player, and perhaps inherit from a player class.

You will want to iterate through this a number of times and make changes. If you go through the requirements summary statement and highlight all the nouns, you have a good list from which you can start gleaning your objects. The use of CRC cards conjures up scenes of dimly lit rooms, partially filled boxes of pizza, pop cans, and multitudes of index cards strewn around the room. If we create a good design for the blackjack game, perhaps we can reuse the classes later for other card games. The case study was that of an automated teller machine ATM system. Here is the requirements summary statement:. Because we are not interested in the implementation, we'll concentrate on the interface. Each player will have a hand. However, there are enough additional attributes of a dealer that we should probably keep this class. The iterative process of identifying the classes and responsibilities using CRC modeling was an eye-opening experience. Although there might be more than one player, each player plays only against the dealer , and not any of the other players. As stated earlier, you shouldn't get too hung up in getting things right the first time. There might also be classes that you feel should not have made the list. In this game, we will require that a player has a single hand.